Tuesday, 24 February 2009

Understanding the Disease of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis and Ways to Contain It By D. Raja Reddy

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is a disease caused by excessive ingestion of fluoride through water, food or both. The upper limit of optimum fluoride level in drinking water for a tropical country like India
is 0.5 ppm. The upper limit of safe total intake of fluoride from food and water per day for an adult is 5 milligrams (WHO-2002). The total daily intake through water and food determines the development of fluorosis. First ever cases of endemic skeletal fluorosis and its neurological manifestations in the world were recorded from Podili, Darsi and Kanigiri areas of Andhra Pradesh in 1937. Subsequently cases of fluorosis were recorded from Nalgonda and other areas of the Andhra Pradesh state and other parts of India. It is now estimated that 60 million people are living in these endemic areas and are at risk of contacting the disease and 2 million people are crippled because of it.
The incidence of fluorosis affected districts in India are listed alphabetically: Assam=2; Andhra Pradesh= 17; Bihar=8; Delhi=4; Gujarat= All except Dang; Haryana= 12; Jammu & Kashmir=l; Karnataka= 14; Kerala=3; Maharashtra= 10; Madhya Pradesh= 10; Orissa= 3; Punjab=13; Rajasthan= All 32 districts; Tamil Nadu= 8; Uttar Pradesh= 7 and West Benga=4. Hence, skeletal fluorosis continues to be a major public health problem in India.

Link : http://www.fluorosisinandhra.org/booklet_fluorosis.pdf

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