The element fluorine has long been recognised to have benefits for dental health: low-fluoride intake has been linked to development of dental caries and the use of fluoride toothpastes and mouthwashes is widely advocated in mitigating dental health problems. Fluoridation of water supplies to augment naturally low fluoride concentrations is also undertaken in some countries. However, despite the benefits, optimal doses of fluoride appear to fall within a narrow range. The detrimental effects of ingestion of excessive doses of fluoride are also well documented. Chronic ingestion of high doses has been linked to the development of dental fluorosis, and in extreme cases, skeletal fluorosis. High doses have also been linked to cancer (Marshall, 1990), although the association is not well-established (Hamilton, 1992).