Thursday, 20 August 2015

Fluoride Exposure Effects And Dental Fluorosis In Children In Mexico City by Nelly Molina-Frechero , Enrique Gaona , Marina Angulo , Leonor Sanchez Perez , Rogelio Gonzalez Gonzalez , Martina Nevarez Rascon , Ronell Bologna-Molina

In recent decades, with the objective of preventing dental cavities, multiple topical and systemic fluorides have been incorporated into different diet products. The administration or ingestion of excessive fluorides leads to toxicity and causes the secondary effect of dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is a disorder that begins in the odontogenesis stage when the teeth are forming, and the clinical manifestations of this disease are more evident in permanent dentition. Clinically, dental fluorosis is characterized by stains that are white, opaque, and do not have the shine of enamel; the teeth can be striated or spotted, and extrinsic stains may be between yellow and dark brown. The affected dental organs can present greatly accentuated perikymata. More severe cases show dis-  connected pits and zones of hypoplasia in the enamel, which can cause the tooth to lose its normal morphology. The frequency and severity of the lesion increase as the ingestion of fluoride in the water increases above 0.7 ppm; in Mexico, this level is recommended to achieve a beneficial effect in the prevention of dental cavities due to the warm climate in Mexico, which leads the population to ingest a greater quantity of liquids.

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